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What Are Nootropics or “Smart Drugs” or Cognitive Enhancers?

SOURCES:

BMJ: “The Billion Dollar Business of Being Smart.”

Chris D’Adamo, PhD, director of research and education, Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews: “Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP‐choline) for Cognitive and Behavioural Disturbances Associated With Chronic Cerebral Disorders in the Elderly,” “Huperzine A for Mild Cognitive Impairment,” “Vinpocetine for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.”

European Neuropsychopharmacology: Modafinil for Cognitive Neuroenhancement in Healthy Non-Sleep-Deprived Subjects: A Systematic Review.”

Evidence-Based Complimentary and Alternative Medicine: “Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.”

Experimental Gerontology: “Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Cognitive Function of Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.”

Barry Gordon, MD, PhD, director, Cognitive Neurology/Neuropsychology Division, Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Harvard Business Review: “Like It or Not, Smart Drugs Are Coming to the Office.”

Journal of Ethnopharmacology: “Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on Cognitive Effects of Bacopa Monnieri Extract.”

National Center for Health Research: ” ‘Study Drug’ Abuse by College Students: What You Need to Know.”

Nutritional Neuroscience: “The Combined Effects of L-theanine and Caffeine on Cognitive Performance and Mood.”

FDA: “Spilling the Beans: How Much Caffeine is Too Much?” “Pure and Highly Concentrated Caffeine.”

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